Local Wisdom in Animal Conservation and Animal Use as Medicine of Orang Rimba in Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi

  • Burhanuddin Masyud Department of Forest Forest Resource Conservation and Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry, IPB University, Academic Ring Road, Campus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, Indonesia 16680
  • Nela Resta Felayati Department of Forest Forest Resource Conservation and Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry, IPB University, Academic Ring Road, Campus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, Indonesia 16680
  • Tutut Sunarminto Department of Forest Forest Resource Conservation and Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry, IPB University, Academic Ring Road, Campus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, Indonesia 16680
Keywords: local wisdom, animal conservation, ethnomedicine, indigenous group, community

Abstract

Orang Rimba is an ethnic group consisting of several indigenous groups that live in harmony with nature. This study aims to analyze the local wisdom in animal conservation and differences in the use of animals as medicines of Orang Rimba groups (Makekal, Air Hitam, and Terap groups). Data were collected through field observation and in-depth interviews with key persons. The results showed that local wisdom in animal conservation was indicated by the regulation in the use of animals through the stipulation that certain animals considered as gods must not be hunted, and that customary spaces use is prohibited. There were 68 animal species used for various needs, 20 species (29.41%) were used as medicines. The Makekal, Air Hitam, and Terap used 11 species, 9 species, and 4 species, respectively. Parts of animals used as medicines included the whole body, meat, bile, heart, and scale. They were used to treat various diseases such as fever, itchy, antidote, stamina, stomach ache, measles, heat sink, kidney diseases, asthma, and shortness of breath. The animals that were used as medicines included snake sapodilla (Malayopython reticulatus), porcupine (Hystris sumatrae), long-tailed monkey (Macaca fascicularis), javan pangolin (Manis javanica), three-striped squirrel (Callosciurus prevostii), cave bat (Chiroptera sp.), turtle/labi-labi (Dogania subplana), and tapah fish (Wallago attu). The local wisdom of Orang Rimba is indicated to changes such as the use of health facilities and modern medicines instead of animals as medicines and the shift of traditional orientation in animal use to the economy orientation.

References

Afriansyah, B., Hidayati, N. A., & Aprizan, D. H. (2016). Pemanfaatan hewan sebagai obat tradisional oleh etnik Lom di Bangka. Jurnal Penelitian Sains, 18(2), 66–74.

Alves, R. R. N. (2012). Relationships between fauna and people and the role of ethnozoology in animal conservation. Ethnobiology and Conservation, 1(2), 1–69. https://doi.org/10.15451/ec2012-8-1.2-1-69

Arisnagara, F. (2009). Pemanfaatan reptil sebagai obat dan makanan di Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta [thesis]. Bogor: IPB University.

Batoro, J., Setiadi, D., Chikmawati, T., & Purwanto, Y. (2012). Pengetahuan fauna (etnozoologi) masyarakat Tengger di Bromo Tengger Semeru Jawa Timur. Biota, 17(1). https://doi.org/110.24002/biota.v17i1.128

[BTNBD] Balai Taman Nasional Bukit Duabelas. (2018). Zonasi/tata ruang adat Taman Nasional Bukit Duabelas Kabupaten Sarolangun-Kabupaten Batanghari-Kabupaten Tebo Provinsi Jambi. Sarolangun: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan, Direktorat Jenderal KSDAE.

Helida, A. (2016). Integrasi etnobiologi masyarakat Kerinci dalam konservasi sumberdaya alam hayati dan ekosistemnya [dissertation]. Bogor: IPB University.

Hermansyah, P. (2019). Mengenal Orang Rimba di Taman Nasional Bukit Duabelas. Jambi: Balai Taman Nasional Bukit Duabelas.

Iyai, D. A., Murwanto, G. A., & Killian, A. M. (2011). Sistim perburuan dan etnozoologu biawak (family varanidae) oleh Suku Yaur pada Taman Nasinoal Laut Teluk Cenderawasih. Biota, 16(2), 278–286. https://doi.org/10.24002/biota.v16i2.110

Kartikasari, D., Masyud, B., & Kusrini, M. D. (2008). Animal utilization as traditional medicine in Central Java. In: Proceedings of AZWMC; Bogor, August 2008.

Kumar, R. (2011). Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners (3rd ed.). New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.

Masyithah, Hariyadi, B., & Kartika, W. D. (2016). Kajian etnozoologi hewan yang dikonsumsi pada komunitas Orang Rimba di Taman Nasional Bukit Duabelas Kabupaten Sarolangun. Bio-site, 2(2), 10–18.

Novriyanti. (2014). Zooculture trenggiling pada Orang Rimba Bukit Duabelas dan Masyarakat Melayu Kabupaten Sarolangun Propinsi Jambi [thesis]. Bogor: IPB University.

Novriyanti. (2019). Pemanfataan satwaliar oleh masyarakat sekitar Hutan Desa Beringin Tinggi, Kabupaten Meranin, Provinsi Jambi. Jurnal Silva Tropika, 3(2), 142–150.

Novriyanti, Masyud, B., & Bismark, M. (2014). Pola dan nilai lokal etnis dalam pemanfaatan satwa pada Orang Rimba Bukit Duabelas Provinsi Jambi Jurnal Penelitian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, 11(3), 299–313. https://doi.org/10.20886/jphka.2014.11.3.299-313

Prasetijo, A. (2015). Orang Rimba, true custodian of the forest: Alternative strategies and actions in social movement against hegemony. Jakarta & Jambi: ICSD & KKI Warsi.

Putra, Y., Masyud, B., & Ulfa, M. (2008). Keanekaragaman satwa berkhasiat obat di Taman Nasional Betung Kerihun, Kalimantan Barat, Media Konservasi, 13(8), 8–15.

Rambo, A. T. (1983). Conceptual approaches to human ecology (Research Report). Honolulu: East-West Environment and Policy Institute.

Sager, S. (2008). The sky is our roof, the earth our floor [dissertation]. Canberra: The Australian National University.

Subiakto, W., & Bakrie, I. (2015). Peranan hukum adat dalam menjaga dan melestarikan hutan di Desa Metulang Kecamatan Kayan Selatan Kabupaten Malinau Propinsi Kalimantan Utara. Jurnal AGRIFOR, 14(2), 293–314. https://doi.org/10.31293/af.v14i2.1436

Suyahman. (2017). Internalisasi kearifan lokal dalam era global menyongsong generasi emas tahun 2045. In: PIBSI XXXIX; Semarang, 78 November 2017. Pp 1214–1226.

Thontowi, J. (2015). Pengaturan masyarakat hukum adat dan implementasi perlindungan hak-hak tradisionalnya. Pendecta, 10(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.15294/pandecta.v10i1.4190

Usat, Y., Hendra, M., & Hariani, N. (2016). Studi etnomedisin satwa pada masyarakat Dayak Kenyah Lepoq Tukung di Desa Batu Majang Kab. Mahakam Ulu. In: Prosiding Seminar Sains dan Teknologi FMIPA Unmul; Samarinda, March 2016. 4

Published
2020-04-28
How to Cite
Masyud, B., Felayati, N. R., & Sunarminto, T. (2020). Local Wisdom in Animal Conservation and Animal Use as Medicine of Orang Rimba in Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi . Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 26(1), 72-79. https://doi.org/10.7226/jtfm.26.1.72
Section
Articles