Pola Teknik Budi Daya dan Sifat Kimia Tanah yang Berhubungan dengan Penyakit Blas pada Padi Sawah

  • Yuyun Andriyani Department of Plant Protection, IPB University
  • Suryo Wiyono Department of Plant Protection, IPB University
Keywords: Ciherang varieties, herbicides, macro elements, micro elements, Pyricularia oryzae

Abstract

Pattern of Cultivation Technique and Soil Chemical Properties Associated with Blast Disease of Paddy Rice

Blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae is a most destructive diseases of rice in all rice producing countries. However severe blast infestation on paddy rice in Indonesia is relatively new, it is previously known as main disease of upland rice. This study aimed to determine the agronomic and soil factors associated with development of blast disease of paddy rice. Blast disease was assessed on 50 plots of paddy field by using IRRI score system. Farmers growing paddy rice in observed plots were interviewed using structured questionnaire on cultivation techniques includes varieties, NPK organic and synthetic fertilizers rate, insecticides, fungicides and herbicides uses. Soil chemical analysis was done on pH, C organic, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Zn, Mn, Cu of soils obtained from severe and low severity of blast disease, with five samples for each category. Data of agronomical factors (varieties, fertilizers rate, pesticides uses, organic matter uses) was cross tabulated against two level of blast severity and furthermore analyzed using χ2 test for significance association. Soil chemical properties that has different disease severity were analyzed. The agronomic factors associated with the high severity of lowland rice blast disease involves the use of Ciherang varieties, high frequency pesticides, and herbicides. Soil properties related to the rate of disease outbreak involves levels of N, P, K, S, Si, and soil micro-elements.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahn SN, Yeon KK, Cheol H, Seong SH, Kwon SJ, Chune H, Huhn PM, Susan R. 2000. Molecular mapping of a new gene for resistance to rice blast (Pyricularia grisea Sacc.). J Euphytica. 116(1):17–22.

Anderson PK, Cunningham AA, Patel NG, Morales, FJ, Epstein PR, Daszak P. 2004. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnological drivers. Trends Ecol Evol. 19(10):535–544. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2004.07.021.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2014. Produksi padi, jagung, dan kedelai [Internet] [diunduh 2014 Mei 5]. Tersedia pada: http://www.bps.go.id.

Campos‐Soriano L, Bundó M, Bach‐Pages M, Chiang SF, Chiou TJ, San Segundo B. 2020. Phosphate excess increases susceptibility to pathogen infection in rice. Mol Plant Pathol. 21(4):555–570. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12916.

Dewi IM, Abdul L, Anton M. 2013. Hubungan karakteristik jaringan daun dengan tingkat serangan penyakit blas daun pada beberapa genotype padi. JHPT Tropika. 1(2):10–18.

[Ditjentan] Direktorat Jenderal Pertanian Tanaman Pangan. 2008. Pengalaman dari 2007 dan mensukseskan MT 2007/2008 [Internet] [diunduh 2014 Mei 28]. Tersedia pada: http://ditjentan.deptan.go.id/index.php. option.

Hidayat YS, Nurdin M, Suskandini RD. 2014. Penggunaan Trichoderma sp. sebagai agensia pengendalian terhadap Pyricularia oryzae Cav. penyebab blas pada padi. J Agrotek Tropika. 2(3):414–419.

Huber DM, Haneklaus S . 2007. Managing nutrition to control plant disease. Landbauforschung Völkenrode. 4(57):313–322.

Huber DM, Cheng MW, Winsor BA. 2005. Association of severe Corynespora root rot of soybean with glyphosate-killed giant ragweed. Phytopathology. 95(6):S45

Husnain, Masunaga T, Wakatsuki T. 2010. Field assessment of nutrient balance under intensive rice-farming systems, and its effects on the sustainability of rice production in Java Island, Indonesia. J Agric Food Environ. 4:1–11.

[IRRI] International Rice Research Institute. 1996. Standard Evaluation System for Rice. Ed ke-4. Los Banos (PH): IRRI.

Johal GS, Huber DM. 2009. Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants. Europ J Agron. 31(3):144–152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2009.04.004.

Kim CH. 1986. Effect of water-management on the etiology and epidemiology of rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 4246. https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_disstheses/4246.

Savary S, Madden V, Zadoks JC, Klein-Gebbinck HW. 1995. Use of categorical information and correspondence analysis in plant disease epidemiology. Adv Bot Res. 21:213–240. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2296(08)60014-2.

Scardaci SC, Webster RK, Greer CA, Hill JE, William JF, Mutters DM, Brandon RG, Kenzi KS, Oster JJ. 1997. Rice blast: a new diseases in California. J Agric Fact Sheet Ser. 2:1–2.

Seebold KW, Kucharek TA, Datnoff LE, Victoria FJ, Marchetti MA. 2001. The influence of silicon on components of resistance to blast in susceptible, partially resistant and resistant cultivars of rice. Phytopathology. 91:63–69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2001.91.1.63.

Singh P, Ghoshal N. 2010. Variation in total biological productivity and soil microbial biomass in rainfed agroecosystems: Impact of application of herbicide and soil amendments. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 137(3-4):241–250. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.02.009.

Sudir S, Nasution A, Santoso S, Nuryanto B. 2014. Penyakit blas Pyricularia grisea pada Tanaman Padi dan Strategi Pengendaliannya. Iptek Tanaman Pangan. 9(2):85–96.

Supriyanto B. 2013. Pengaruh cekaman kekeringan terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil padi gogo lokal kultivar jambu (Orysa Sativa Linn). J Agrifor. 7(1):77–82.

Syarif AS, Wiyono S, Sukarno BPW, Purwoko BS. 2017. Role of rice straw compost and potassium in controlling blast disease of paddy rice in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Int J Sci Basic App Res. 36(4):244–254.

Townsend GR, Heuberger JW. 1943. Methods for estimating losses caused by diseases in fungicide experiments. Plant Dis Rep. 27(17):340–343.

Utami DW, Aswidinnoor H, Moelyopawiro S, Hanarida I, Reflinur. 2006. Pewarisan ketahanan penyakit blas (Pyricularia grisea Sacc.) pada persilangan padi IR64 dengan Oryza rufipogon Griff. HAYATI J Biosci. 13(3):107–112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1978-3019(16)30302-3.

Wattanapayapkul W, Polthanee A, Siri B, Badalung NN, Prmkhambut A. 2011. Effect of silicon insuppresing blast disease and increasing grain yield of organic rice in Northeast Thailand. Asian J Plant Pathol. 5(4):134–145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajppaj.2011.134.145.

Wiyono S, Widodo, Triwidodo H. 2014. Managing outbreak of rice pest and diseases in fragile agroecocystem by biointensive integrated pest management (dalam Bahasa Indonesia). Risalah Kebijakan Pertanian dan Lingkungan 1(2):5–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20957/jkebijakan.v1i2.10303.

Published
2021-05-06
How to Cite
Andriyani , Y., & Suryo Wiyono. (2021). Pola Teknik Budi Daya dan Sifat Kimia Tanah yang Berhubungan dengan Penyakit Blas pada Padi Sawah. Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia, 17(2), 76-82. https://doi.org/10.14692/jfi.17.2.76-82
Section
Articles