Keragaman Morfologi dan Molekuler Lasiodiplodia theobromae dari Tanaman Jeruk, Kakao, Karet, Manggis, dan Pisang
Morphological and Molecular Diversity of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Isolated from Citrus, Cocoa, Rubber, Banana and Mangosteen Plants
The fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an important and cosmopolitan pathogen in the tropics and subtropics. The range of host plants is very wide, including economic commodities in Indonesia, i.e. citrus, cocoa, rubber, banana and mangosteen. The intraspecies diversity of fungi isolates from those five plants from different provinces in Indonesia was observed based on the morphological characteristics and molecular markers of RAPD-PCR. The intraspecies diversity was shown from the growth rate of the vegetative growth of the colonies on PDA as a base medium and the ability to produce reproductive structures. The fungal isolates from citrus, rubber and banana were able to grow faster and produce pycnidium and conidium in both PDA and modified-WA medium, while the cocoa and mangosteen isolates grow slower and only could produce these reproductive structures in the WA medium. The diversity between isolates in L. theobromae species was indicated by the morphological difference of the reproductive structures. Young conidium (aseptate) has a length ranging from 13.5-25.7 μm, width 8.1-14.0 μm, and length/width ratio 1.5-2.2; while for mature conidium (septate) 15.4-23.6 μm long, 10.7-12.8 μm wide, length/width ratio 1.4-1.9. Although the conidium sizes between isolates showed differences, they were still within the range of size of the L. theobromae species. The profile of RAPD-PCR DNA fragments using single primers OPB-01 and OPB-07 each resulted in different numbers and sizes of DNA bands between the five isolates, thus indicating the existence of molecular diversity between isolates within the same species.
Barkai-Golan R. 2001. Postharvest Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables: Development and Control. Amsterdam (NL): Elsevier Science BV. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-044450584-2/50002-2.
Bautista-Cruz MA, Almaguer-Vargas G, Leyva-Mir SG, Colinas-León MT, Correia KC, Camacho-Tapia M, Robles-Yerena L, Michereff SJ, Tovar-Pedraza JM. 2019. Phylogeny, distribution, and pathogenicity of Lasiodiplodia species associated with cankers and dieback symptoms of Persian lime in Mexico. Plant Dis. 103(6):1156–1165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-18-1036-RE.
Burgess TL, Barber PA, Mohali S, Pegg G, de Beer W, Wingfield MJ. 2006. Three new Lasiodiplodia spp. from the tropics, recognized based on DNA sequence comparisons and morphology. Mycologia 98(3):423–435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15572536.2006.11832677.
Febbiyanti TR, Widodo, Wiyono S, Yahya, S. 2019. Effect of pH and storage period to the growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae which causes the stem canker on the rubber plant. Indones J Nat Rubber Res. 37(1):1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22302/ppk.jpk.v37i1.615.
Goos RD, Cox EA, Stotzky G, 1961. Botryodiplodia theobromae and its association with Musa species. Mycologia 53(3):262–277. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.1961.12017959.
Griffiths DA. 1967. Induced sporulation of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. isolated from Araucaria cunninghamii Ait. in Malaysia. Mycopathol mycol applic. 33(3–4):273–279. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02088919.
Kannan C, Karthik M, Priya K. 2010. Lasiodiplodia theobromae causes a damaging dieback of cocoa in India. Plant Pathol. 59(2):410. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02192.x.
Karunanayake KOLC, Adikaram NKB. 2020. Stem-end rot in major tropical and sub-tropical fruit species. Ceylon J Sci. 49(5):327–336. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4038/cjs.v49i5.7800.
Mohali S, Burgess TI, Wingfield MJ. 2005. Diversity and host association of the tropical tree endophyte Lasiodiplodia theobromae revealed using simple sequence repeat markers. For Pathol. 35(6):385–396. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2005.00418.x.
Moller EM, Bahnweg G, Sandermann H, Geiger HH. 1992. A simple and efficient protocol for isolation of high molecular weight DNA from filamentous fungi, fruit bodies, and infected plant tissues. Nucleic Acids Res. 20(22):6115–6116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/20.22.6115.
Picos-Muñoz PA, García-Estrada RS, León-Felix J, Sañudo-Barajas A, Allende-Molar R. 2015. Lasiodiplodia theobromae in agricultural crops in México: taxonomy, host, diversity and control. Rev Mex Fitopatol. 33(1):54–74.
Punithalingam E. 1980. Plant Diseases Attributed to Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. Lichtenstein (CH): J Cramer Pub.
Rodríguez-Gálvez E, Guerrero P, Barradas C, Crous PW, Alves A. 2017. Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback of mango in Peru. Fungal Biol. 121(4):452–465. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2016.06.004.
Rossman AY, Allen WC, Castlebury LA. 2017. (2514–2516) Proposals to conserve Botryodiplodia theobromae (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) against Sphaeria glandicola, Diplodia gossypina, and Physalosporarhodina (Botryosphaeria rhodina); Phyllosticta yuccae against Leptodothiorella notabilis; and Ramularia brunnea against Sphaerella tussilaginis (Mycosphaerella tussilaginis) (Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes). Taxon. 66(3):747–748. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12705/663.17.
Salvatore MM, Andolfi A, Nicoletti R. 2020. The thin line between pathogenicity and endophytism: The case of Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Agriculture. 10(10):1–22.
Sangchote R, Pongpisutta R. 1998. Fruit rots of mangosteen and their control. Di dalam: Proceedings of an International Workshop Disease Control and Storage Life Extension in Fruit. 1997 Mei 22–23; Chiang Mai (TH): ACIAR. hlm 81–86.
Slippers B, Boissin E, Phillips AJL, Groenewald JZ, Lombard L, Wingfield MJ,Postma A, Burgess T, Crous PW. 2013. Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriales: a systematic and evolutionary framework. Stud Mycol. 76:31–49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3114/sim0020.
Sowmya P, Naik VN, Sivaprasad V, Naik VG. 2018. Characterization and correlation of pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia theobromae isolates, the causal agent of black root rot of mulberry (Morus spp.). Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot. 51(19–20):1022–1038. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03235408.2018.1544192.
Vitoria NS, Cavalcanti M, Bezerra JL 2012. Lasiodiplodia theobromae: a new host and a revision of plant hosts reported in Brazil. Agrotrópica. 24(1):63–66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21757/0103-3816.2012v24n1p63-66.
Zhang J. 2014. Lasiodiplodia theobromae in citrus fruit (Diplodia stem-end rot). Di dalam: Bautista-Baños, editor. Postharvest Decay. Massachusetts (US): Academic Press. hlm 309–335. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-411552-1.00010-7.
Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.