Pengembangan Tungku Gasifikasi Arang Biomassa Tipe Natural Draft Gasification Berdasarkan Analisis Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Erlanda Augupta Pane, Leopold O. Nelwan, Dyah Wulandani

Abstract


Abstract
A biomass stove based on natural draft gasification (NDG) has been developed in a previous study (Nelwa, et al. 2013) by using simulation based on heat transfer and equilibrium modeling. In this study, a CFD simulation was performed in order to analyze the effect of chimney height, and inlet hole diameter of the stove to the performance of the stove. The results of simulation showed that power produced by stove was between 1863.9 J/s until 2585.7 J/s, and its gasification efficiency was 67.11%. The results of simulation also showed that charcoal gasification produces combustible gases (CO, CH4, and H2) at the bottom and the center of stove, and then they were oxidized by secondary air at the top of stove. This oxidation reaction produces sufficient heat energy which can be used for cooking process.
Keywords: stove, power, combustible gas, gasification efficiency

Abstrak
Sebuah Disain tungku natural draft gasification (NDG) telah diciptakan sebelumnya (Nelwa, et al. 2013) dengan menggunakan pemodelan dan simulasi berbasis pindah panas, dan equilibrium. Penelitian ini menggunakan simulasi computational fluid dynamics (CFD) untuk menganalisis performa tungku pada bagian geometri cerobong gas bakar, dan lubang udara sekunder. Hasil simulasi dari beberapa skenario tungku yang dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa dari skenario disain tungku didapatkan daya tungku antara 1863.9 J/detik sampai dengan 2585.7 J/detik, dan memiliki efisiensi gasifikasi sebesar 67.11%. Proses gasifikasi arang kayu menghasilkan gas mampu bakar CO, CH4, dan H2, dimana gas mampu bakar tersebut mengalami reaksi pembakaran dengan aliran udara sekunder yang masuk di bagian tengah saluran gas mampu bakar. Reaksi pembakaran ini, menghasilkan energi panas yang memadai untuk proses memasak.
Kata Kunci: tungku, daya, gas bakar, efisiensi gasifikasi

Diterima: 02 Mei 2014; Disetujui: 15 Agustus 2014


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