Pertimbangan Sifat Mekanik Pelepah Sawit Terhadap Proses Pengomposan Sebagai Acuan Desain Mesin Pencacah

Ramayanty Bulan, Tineke Mandang, Wawan Hermawan, Desrial -

Abstract


Abstract

Physical and mechanical properties of palm frond are very important factor for the development of palm oil waste utilization technology. The objective of this research was to determine mechanical properties of palm frond Frond for Chopper Machine Designing. The research of composting conduct with two composting factor combination, namely: composting starter composition (i.e. Bokashi, vermi-compost and natural composting) and piece of frond dimension (2 cm, 4 cm, and 6 cm). Sample was obtained from 5 years and 20 years palm oil trees. The average length of palm frond was 675.89 cm, average leaflet length at the palm frond base was 103.89 cm and average leaflet length at palm frond tip was 23.83 cm. Maximum compression strength at the 20 years-palm frond base was 8134.62 N and at the 5 years-palm midrib base was 4893.52 N. Maximum force requirement for cutting palm leaf was 67.67 N. The composting process
indicates that Bokashi starter composition gives higher percentage of mass reduction on all variant of piece of frond dimension. Smaller piece of frond (2 cm) enable the composting process quicker and had a better result. Statistical analysis reveals that combination of composting factors have significant effect on C/N ratio but insignificant on NPK content.

Abstrak

Karakteristik fisik dan mekanik pelepah sawit merupakan faktor penting dalam pengembangan teknologi penanganan limbah pelepah sawit. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan karakteristik fisik dan mekanik dari pelepah sawit untuk mendesain mesin pencacah daun sawit. Kombinasi metode pengomposan (bokashi, vermikompos, natural kompos) dan ukuran cacahan daun sawit (2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm) juga diteliti. Sampel pelepah sawit diperoleh dari pohon yang berumur 5 tahun dan 20 tahun. Panjang pelepah sawit adalah 675.89 cm, panjang daun rata-rata pada pangkal adalah 103.89 cm dan panjang daun rata-rata pada ujung pelepah adalah 23.83 cm. Kekuatan tekan maksimum pelepah pada bagian pangkal pelepah yang berumur 20 tahun yaitu 8134.62 N dan pada pelepah yang berumur 5 tahun yaitu 4893.52 N. Tahanan potong maksimum daun adalah 67.67 N. Proses pengomposan menunjukkan bahwa metode pengomposan bokashi memberikan persentase penurunan massa yang paling besar dibandingkan dengan metode lainnya. Cacahan daun pelepah 2 cm memberikan proses pengomposan yang lebih baik. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan bahwa metode pengomposan memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan pada rasio C/N tetapi tidak signifikan pada kandungan NPK.


Keywords


palm fronds, compression strength, chopper, composting, bokashi

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aholoukpe, H., B. Dubos, A. Flori, P. Deleporte, G. Amadji, J.L. Chotte, D. Blavet. 2013. Estimating aboveground biomass of oil palm: allometric equations for estimating frond biomass. Journal

Forest Ecology Management 292: 122-129.

Bernal, M.P., J.A. Alburquerque, R. Moral. 2009. Composting a animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review. Journal Bioresource Technology 100: 5444-5453.

Corley, R.H.V., P.B. Tinker. 2003. The Oil Palm, fourth ed. World Agriculture. 562p.

Francou, C., M. Poitrenaud, S. Houot. 2005. Stabilization of organic matter during composting: influence of process and feedstocks. Journal Compost Science Utilization 13(1): 72-83.

Germer, J., J. Sauerborn. 2008. Estimation of the impact of oil palm plantation establishment on greenhouse gas balance. Journal ED Sustainability 10: 697–716.

Hartmann, C. 1991. Evolution et comportement des sols sablo-argileux ferralitiques sous culture du palmiers à huile. Cas de la plantation R. Michaux à Dabou en Côte d’Ivoire. Thèse de Doctorat de l’Université de Paris 6.

Intara, Y.I., IN. Suastawa, R.P.A. Setiawan. 2005. Sifat fisik dan mekanik parenkhim pelepah dan batang tandan sawit. Jurnal keteknikan pertanian. 19 (2): 117-126.

Mielke, T. 2011. The 22nd Palm and Lauric Oils Conference and Exhibition (POC 2011). Global demand for palm oil growing rapidly.

Morel, A.C., S.S. Saatchi, Y. Malhi, N.J. Berry, L. Banan, D. Burslem, R. Nilus, R.C. Ong. 2011. Estimating aboveground biomass in forest and oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo using ALOS PALSAR data. Journal Forest Ecology and Management 262: 1786-1798.

Lakkad, S.C., J.M. Patel. 1981. Mechanical properties of bamboo, a natural composite. Journal Fibre Science and Technology 14 (4): 319-322.

Oviasogie, P.O., N.O. Aisueni, G.E. Brown. 2010. Oil palm composted biomass: A review of the preparation, utilization, handling and storage. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(13): 1553-1571.

Sarwono, E. 2008. Pemanfaatan Jajang Kosong Sebagai Substitusi Pupuk Tanaman Kelapa Sawit. Jurnal Aplika 8 (1): 19-23.

Suhaimi, M., H.K. Ong. 2001. Composting empty fruit bunches of oil palm. FFTC Publication. Malaysia Agricultural Resource Dev. Inst. Malaysia 1 November 2001.

Sularso, K. Suga. 2004. Dasar Perancangan dan Pemilihan Elemen Mesin. PT Pradnya Paramita. Jakarta.

Zahari, M.W., O.A. Hassan, H.K. Wong, J.B. Liang. 2003. Utilization of Oil Palm Frond-Based Diets for Beef and Dairy Production in Malaysia. Asian-Aust Journal Anim 16(4): 625-634.




Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Alamat Redaksi: 
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian, Departemen Teknik Mesin dan Biosistem, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680. Telp. 0251-8623026; Fax: 0251-8623026; Email: jurnaltep@yahoo.com  website: http://journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jtep 

 

This journal is published under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.